“Discourses on Livy” is a book of political history that served as a foundational work of modern republicanism. Machiavelli writes an analysis of the first ten books of Livy’s “History of Rome” which describe the rise and expansion of Rome. He also discusses what can be learned from many other historical time periods including the politics of his era. Machiavelli describes the Romans and other ancient peoples as superior models for his contemporaries, but he also describes political greatness as something that is achievable for those attempting to govern a modern republic. Written in the early 16th century, “Discourses on Livy” was published posthumously with papal privilege in 1531. While the book is primarily a discussion of the classical history of early Ancient Rome, it strays very far from this subject matter and uses contemporary political examples to illustrate points. The book and the topics it discusses remain relevant today.