Dante Alighieri is one of the most important and influential names in all of European literature, but it was only after his exile from his native Florence at age 37 (1302) that he set out to write his more ambitious works. One of them, De Monarchia, is believed to have been written around the year of 1313. In this work the great Italian poet turns his hand to political thought and defends the reign of a single monarch ruling over a universal empire. He believed that peace was only achievable when a single monarch replaced divisive and squabbling princes and kings. However, he also believed in a separation of powers in that the Emperor has jurisdiction over temporal matters, whilst the Pope administered over things spiritual.